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ASMR STUDIO : Psychotronics

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No. 1
Amplifiers and Oscillators

The 'Chopper' Amplifier and Pulse Width Modulation

A signal gained, also amplifies background noise. One solution is to chop' an incoming DC signal using pulse width modulation, and output an amplified AC signal. The 555 is a 'chopper' thus a nonlinear amplifier. Also known as switching amplifiers (D to T-Class Amplifiers), these differ from linear gain devices (A to C-Class Amplifiers) that have lower distortion levels.
In Direct Current (DC) Magnetic Motors, Light Emitting Diodes and Radio, the voltage variance determines pulse and frequency. Normally a variable resistor is used, but to avoid energy loss as heat, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) supplied by an oscillator is used. The average voltage delivered to the load is controlled by varying the rectangular wave duty cycle.
Low Voltage = Quick Pulse, High Voltage = Long Pulse


The resistors (R) and capacitor (C) cause the 555 timer to oscillate at approx 66kHz. The speaker does not respond to this high frequency. Instead it responds to the standard modulated output from a 20kHz Compact Disc Line out, demonstrating the concept of pulse-width modulation. Amplifier gets very hot and is for brief demonstrations. Heat sink may be useful.

Q : BC547 NPN (C,B,E)
C : Polar Capacitor +/-
R : Resistor (Oxide Film)
C : Non Polar Capacitor (Ceramic Disc)

66 Hertz Per Second = 1.44 / (R1+2R2) * C

schematic made in

Build a Capacitor from Aluminum Paper and a Book

Capacitor is two aluminum sheets tucked into a book, with one page separating them. Capacity is reduced by sliding one strip out from the book a little at a time. Capacitance changes when you press down on the book, or when days are humid. With more effort, a durable, stable, capacitor using foil and waxed paper or plastic wrap is possible.
Parallel Capacitors = CP = C1 + C2 + C3 Capacitors in Series = CS = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3
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555 Timer Calculations {{{PL286}}} The 555 timer shown right, in an astable circuit.


Frequency Hz (Hertz) is pulses per second. F = 1.44 / (R1+2R2) * C


Wavelength λ (Period) is the time in seconds covered for one pulse. T= 1 / f = 0.694 * (R1+2R2) * C


High Time (T1) and Low Time (T0) calculations. Note that the period is the sum of the high time and low time. T1 = 0.694 * (R1+R2) * C T0 = 0.694 * R2 * C


Mark Space Ratio is the ratio between the high and the low time or: T1 / T0
Duty Cycle is more commonly used than the mark space ratio. Formula for duty cycle is: (T1 / T) x 100 A 50% duty cycle means the high time is equal to the low time. An LED placed at output (Piun 3), will be on the same length it is off. Note that Notes: 1. Increase C to increase the period (reduce the frequency). 2. Increase R1 to increase High Time ( T1 ), without affecting the Low Time (T0). 3. Increase R2 to increase High Time ( T1 ), increase Low Time ( T0 ) and decrease the duty cycle. 4. Getting an exact 50% duty cycle is impossible with this circuit.




555 DC MOTOR CONTROLLER D : Schottky Diode 150 450 mV Forward Voltage SemiConductor
NE555 is wired as an astable multivibrator whose duty cycle (motor speed) can be adjusted by varying the POT R1. The output of IC1 is coupled to the base of transistor Q1 which drives the motor according to the PWM signal available at its base. Change of DC motor direction is attained using the DPDT switch S1 which toggles the polarity applied to the motor. Use 12V DC for powering the IC. Vm is the power supply for motor and its value depends on the motor voltage rating. Vce (Voltage from Collector to Emitter) for BD139 is 80V, so Vm should not exceed 80 volts. Maximum collector current BD139 can handle is 1.5A and so do not use a motor that consumes more than 1.5 amperes of current. A heat sink is necessary for BD139.
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Crystal (xtal ) Oscillator

When a mechanical pressure is applied across the crystal faces, a voltage proportional appears across the crystal, properly known as piezo-electric effect. Conversely, when a voltage crosses the crystal surfaces, the crystal distorts proportionally. A/C vibrates xtal at its natural frequency. Quartz, Rochelle salt exhibit piezo-electric effect the greatest, are mechanically the weakest strongly affected by moisture and heat. Its applications are limited to


Series Resonant Frequency

L = Inductor, C = Capacitor

In this mode of operation, generally called the Pierce crystal, impedance is smallest and positive feedback is the largest. Resistor R1, R2 and RE

provide a voltage-divider stabilized dc bias circuit, the capacitor CE provides ac bypass of the emitter resistor R^ and the radio-frequency coil (RFC) provides for dc bias -while decoupling any ac signal on the power lines from affecting the output signal. The voltage feedback signal from the collector to the base is maximum when the crystal impedance is minimum (that is, The series-resonant mode). The coupling capacitor Cc has

Parallel Resonant Frequency

In this case crystal impedance is very high. Parallel resonance frequency fp is due to xtal parallel capacitance CM resonance and the reactance of the series circuit.

negligible impedance at the circuit operating frequency and blocks any dc between collector and base. Crystal resonance in series sets circuit oscillation frequency.
It appears that fp is higher than fs but the two frequencies are close due to C/CM ratio being very small. Oscillator frequency is stabilized, by either its series or parallel resonant frequency.
Crystal operating mode is low impedance in the series-resonant or high impedance in the anti-resonant or parallel resonant. Variations in supply voltage, transistor parameters, etc. have no effect on the circuit operating frequency held stabilized by the crystal. Crystal oscillators provide specified frequencies by a
load capacitance listed by the manufacturer. Exceeding manufacturers power supply maximum ratings distorts the oscillators waveform, causing unstable resonance from power loss as heat.

Radio mounted quartz with piezo deformation

Thin-plated electrodes may melt. Crystal resistance and a/c maximum drive power (varies from 2 m W to 10 m W) will determine ac voltage until detabalization and heat loss for plated crystals. P = V2/R. One way may be to rubber band a xtal sliver to wires.
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555 Tone Generator

R1 Position

R1 Position
Beats per Minute
60 bpm
120 bpm
Piezo Sounder

Mobile incoming call indicator

The coil L1 is 10 μH and can be made on a 5mm dia plastic former, making 150 turns using 36 SWG enameled copper wire. Powered from a 6V battery. C1 & C3 are polyester capacitors. The electrolytic capacitor C2 must be rated at least 10V. The Light Emitting Diode (LED) placed near a mobile phone, even if theringer is deactivated, lights. The receiver frequency is around 900MHz. Coil L1 picks up these oscillations by induction and feeds it to the base of Q1. This activates transistor Q1. Since Q1's collector is connected to IC1's pin 2 (NE555) , IC1 is triggered to make the LED connected at its output pin (pin 3) to blink. The blinking of the LED is the indication of incoming call.

Wheelers (Round Wire) Inductance Formulas

Air core radio to magnetic inductance formulas. Solenoid accurate to approximately 1% for 2r/l < 3. Thick coil is 1% accurate nearing equal denominators. Spiral formula is 1% accurate for c>0.2r.

L = Coil Inductance in Microhenrys
N = Wire Turns
r = Coil in Inches Mean Radius
l = Coil Length in Inches
C = Coil Thickness in inches

Tank Circuits : From Battery Chargers to Crystal Oscillators

L(inductance) = H(henries)
Circuit stores energy in the form of electric and magnetic fields, so it is a tank (storage). Inductor stores magnetic field energy and capacitor stores electric field energy. Inductor and capacitor play catch-catch energizing and de energizing.
Electromagnetic OHM Ω Law (Theory) Sound (Theory)
I (Amps) = V/R = P/V = vP/R V (velocity) = Pa/z = J/Pa = vJ/z
V (Volts) = I*R = P/I = vP*R Pa (Pascals) = v*Z = J/v = vJ*z
R (Ohm) = V2/P = P/I2 = V/I Z (Impedance) Pa2/J = J/v2 = Pa/v
P (Power) = V*I = R*I2 = V2/R J (Intensity) = v*Pa = Z*v2 = Pa2/z
J (Intensity)

LIGHT SPEED = 186,282 km/s or 670,616,629 mph

Non Polar Polar Variable
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The Black Stone - Rock Set in Kaaba, at the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Islam makes pilgramidge to a rock. Yes, it's probably ornamental as the original stone was probably put to work. Nasa is busy growing space crystals free from gravity's influence as the ones from meteorites are

Long-Distance Survival Radios{{{PL332}}}

A capacitor blocks low frequencies and allows high frequencies to pass. A coil (inductor) passes low frequencies and blocks high frequencies. By using both high and low frequencies are blocked and only narrow range frequencies are allowed to pass. This will have the effect of selecting a particular radiofrequency. This is known as a tuned circuit. Because in our radio the capacitor is variable, it's

value (technically called its capacitance) will change as you turn the knob, which means the exact frequency that is allowed to pass through can be changed so you can tune in a radio station. Headphones are crystals.

A 555 chip tachometer driver circuit to simulate dr.joseph sharp's microwave voice to pulses conversion method


Artificial microwave voice to skull transmission was successfully demonstrated by researcher Dr. Joseph Sharp in 1973, announced at a seminar from the University of Utah in 1974, and in the journal 'American Psychologist' in the March, 1975 issue, article title 'Microwaves and Behavior' by Dr. Don Justesen. Image illustrates voice to skull modulation method described in the American Psychologist journal article. The 555 chip israted to work the 100kHz range. Microwaves have wavelengths approximately in the range of 30 cm (frequency = 1 GHz) to 1 mm (300 GHz). National Telecommunications and Information Administration generally divides the radio spectrum into nine bands:

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) <3 kHz >100 km

Very Low Frequency (VLF) 3 to 30 kHz 10 to 100 km

Low Frequency (LF) 30 to 300 kHz 1 m to 10 km

Medium Frequency (MF) 300 kHz to 3 MHz 100 m to 1 km

High Frequency (HF) 3 to 30 MHz 10 to 100 m

Very High Frequency (VHF) 30 to 300 MHz 1 to 10 m

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 300 MHz to 3 GHz 10 cm to 1 m

Super High Frequency (SHF) 3 to 30 GHz 1 to 1 cm

Extreme High Frequency (EHF) 30 to 300 GHz 1 mm to 1 cm

Jesse Ventura tests V2K ( voice to skull ) on himself :

2N3904 NPN Transistor (Emitter, Base, Collector)

E = Emitter
B = Base
C = Collector
Vce = 40v Max
Hz = 300MHz
Ic = 200mA
P = 625mW
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Bigger Rochelle salt crystal grown from seed.

Rochelle salt crystals Ingredients

500 grams (1 lb) of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3),

200 grams (7 oz) of cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate, KHC4H4O6),

250 milliliters (1 cup) of distilled water,

Part A: Baking soda into washing soda (sodium carbonate)

2NaHCO3 => Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

Heating sodium bicarbonate to carbonate removes hydrogen, oxygen and some carbon. 1rsthr 500g 150F (65C) 2ndhr 250F (120C) 3rdhr 350F (175C) 4thhr. 450F (230C) Step 5. Cool. {{{PT352}}} {{{PD352}}} Step 9. You can make crystals as large as 3/8" (1 centimeter) long. Pick one of the ones you've made and use it as a seed crystal to grow a larger one around it. See my page on how to test rochelle salt crystals for more about this.

Wide Band RF Amplifier Input Range 10MHz - 500MHz

A 555 chip tachometer driver circuit to simulate dr.joseph sharp's microwave voice to pulses conversion method

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